Synonyms: Calcitrapa tinctoria (L.) Röhl., Carduus tinctorius (L.) Falk
English Name: Safflower
Other Names in English: Bastard Saffron
Persian Name: گلرنگ، کافشه/ Golrang, Kafsheh
German Name: Echter Saflor, Färber-Saflor, Färberdistel, Saflor, Falscher Safran
French Name: Carthame des teinturiers, Safran des teinturiers, Safran bâtard, Safranon, Safre
Safflower is a one-year plant whose height reaches sixty centimeters. The stem of Carthamus tinctorius is relatively thick and yellowish green with pink veins and its cross section is almost circular. The leaves are almost oval and sometimes have a tip, and they grow alternately without petioles. There are small blades on the side of these leaves. The veins of leaves are prominent and distinct on the back of the leaves.
The ends of the stems of the safflower plant are spherical and sometimes cone-shaped, containing many smaller leaves. These domes grow inside each other. The flowers consist of a large number of narrow, relatively small, reddish-orange tubes that grow above these domes.
In the central part of the domes, there are usually seven to eight seeds, and at the end of each seed, numerous, thin and yellowish-white filaments can be seen. The seeds of Carthamus tinctorius are creamy white, shiny, often pyramidal with a quadrangular basal surface, slightly wide, and slightly elongated. The kernel of these seeds is oily.
The best seed is white, fresh, heavy and fully ripe.
Chemical Constituents: 7, 8-dimethylpyrazino [2, 3-g] quinazolin-2, 4-(1H, 3H) -dione, adenosine, adenine, uridine, thymine, uracil, roseoside, 4′-O-dihydrophaseic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside methylester, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid.
Harms: It is harmful to the stomach, overeating it is not good, its extract or oil causes the milk to stop longer in body; Therefore, it should not be eaten with or after drinking milk.
Modifier: Anise and sweets.