Temperaments In Persian Traditional Medicine

Temperaments. Temperaments in Persian traditional medicine. Four temperaments.

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The Importance Of Recognizing Temperament In Traditional Medicine

The basis of disease prevention and treatment in traditional medicine is based on recognizing the four types of temperaments, and in fact, each person to maintain their health and also to treat themselves must know their congenital temperament and prevailed temperament to be able to adjust their nutrition and lifestyle accordingly.

Unfortunately, most people today consume food and beverages on a daily basis that are not compatible with their temperament, since they do not know their temperament, and this has caused this group of people to be exposed to all kinds of diseases or suffer from various diseases.

The Concept Of Temperament

Temperament literally means to mix. Each body is composed of all four elements (water-fire-soil-air) and the difference in the amount of these elements in the objects distinguishes them from each other.

Temperament in traditional medicine means the same and new quality that results from the combination of elements with each other and their interaction in a compound body.

The amount and ratio of each of these elements will determine the temperament of the compound body.

Prevention, control, and treatment of diseases in traditional medicine is based on the cognition of temperament.

Relationship Between Temperament And The Four Elements (Water-Fire-Soil-Air)

In traditional sciences, the basis of creation and the constituent substance of the universe are considered to be the four elements of fire, air, water and soil. Each element has its own quality, which are humidity, heat, coldness and dryness, which the type, amount and quality of the temperaments and the combination of these four elements and four qualities, create nine (9) temperaments.

Warmth is always on top, so the two elements air and fire which are on top are warm, and the two elements water and soil are at the bottom of the atmosphere; Because they are cold and heavy.

Element Temperament
Fire Hot and Dry
Air Hot and Moist
Water Cold and Moist
Soil Cold and Dry

General Category Of Human Temperament

  1. Intrinsic temperament (congenital): It is the temperament with which a person is born.
  2. Adventitious (prevailed) temperament: It is a temperament that is caused by a change in intrinsic temperament by factors such as season, age, sex, place of residence, mental and psychological states, and so on.

Temperaments. Temperaments in Persian traditional medicine. Four temperaments.4 Types Of Body Temperaments

As mentioned above, the type, quantity, quality, and composition of the four elements (fire, air, soil, and water) create 9 temperaments. The four singular temperaments include warm, cold, dry, and moist, and the four compound temperaments, including warm and dry, warm and moist, cold and moist, and cold and dry, and the ninth temperament is temperate:

  1. Hot and Dry (Choleric)
  2. Hot and Moist (Sanguine)
  3. Cold and Moist (Phlegmatic)
  4. Cold and Dry (Melancholic)

Some people who are in balance with the four elements are said to have a temperate temperament, which is divided into 4 types:

  1. Warm and Temperate
  2. Cold and Temperate
  3. Moist and Temperate
  4. Dry and Temperate
  5. Temperate

Seasons Temperaments




Warm and Moist


Warm and Dry


Cold and Dry


Cold and Moist


Different Temperaments Of Places And Regions In Terms Of Geographical Location:

The temperament of the geographical areas is different from each other and affects the temperament of the people living in those areas. The temperament of the regions is shown in the table below:



Seaside with mountains on the north

Hot and Moist

Seaside with mountains on the south

Cold and Moist


Hot and Dry


Cold and Dry

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