Synonyms: Foeniculum carvi (L.) Link, Karos carvi (L.) Nieuwl. & Lunell
English Name: Caraway seed
Other Names in English: –
Caraway is a biennial plant whose height reaches sixty centimeters. The lower leaves of this plant have deep cuts and are divided into smaller parts. The leaves of the upper part also have deep cuts. But these leaves are pointed and almost needle-shaped and are narrower and more elongated than the lower leaves of the plant.
The seeds are dark brown, blackish, elongated, narrow, small, and slightly crescent-shaped, with pointed ends and they grow in pairs. There are prominent, longitudinal, and yellowish lines on the surface of the seeds. Caraway seeds are slightly narrower than Cumin seeds. Caraway seed is fragrant and has a spicy taste.
The mericarps (‘seeds’) contain protein (40%), fixed oil and resin (10%) and a volatile oil (3-8%). The principal constituents of the volatile oil are carvone (55-60%) and limonene. Other monoterpenes present are a-pinene, b-pinene, and p-cymene. The fixed oil is rich in oleic (60%), linoleic (20%) and petroselinic (17%) acids. The phenolics reported from the seeds are glycosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin and coumarins such as 5- and 8-methoxy psoralens, umbelliferone, herniarin, and scopoletin. The whole plant also yields a volatile oil consisting of cadinene (37%), carvone (31%) and dihydrocarveol (10%). The roots contain polyenes, falcarindione, falcarinolone, phytofluene, b-sitosterol, umbelliferone and scopoletin. Leaves contain glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin.
Temperament: Very hot and dry.
Harms: Harmful to the lungs and kidneys as well as hot temperament people.
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