An Overview Of The Interesting Medicinal Properties Of Galbanum From The Perspective Of Traditional Medicine
Galbanum plant is one of the native plants of Iran and also one of the medicinal and industrial plants of this country, which is harvested every year because of its important uses in traditional medicine and various industries. Due to the inappropriate methods of collecting its resin, the ground for the destruction of this plant has been prepared and no action has been taken to protect it.
Galbanum belongs to Apiaceae family and Ferula L. genus. The Ferulas are at the spotlight due to having different chemical compounds such as Terpenoids, Coumarin, Fragrant Esters, Terpene alcohols and Sesquiterpene lactones.
The traditional medicine uses of Galbanum plant in the treatment of many diseases and the existence of valuable herbal and medicinal compounds in it can create a basis for the discovery of herbal medicines in the production of therapeutic medicine. This plant is widely used in Iran as an outstanding medicinal plant for pain relief, treatment of internal diseases and as a disinfectant for wounds.
Considering the importance of medicinal plants in today’s era and the need to know them comprehensively in order to use them as much as possible, in the present study, various aspects of Galbanum medicinal plant have been discussed as one of the valuable and effective medicinal plants in traditional medicine.
The knowledge of medicinal plants and traditional medicine has made its way through many centuries and through trial and error, and many important and treatments of diseases in this medicine have been transmitted orally from one generation to another. The use of medicinal plants to treat diseases has been associated with human history.
For many years, natural medicines, especially medicinal plants, were considered the basis and even in some cases the only way of treatment, and at the same time, the raw materials contained in them were used in modern medicine pharmaceutical industry. The increasing trend of side effects caused by the use of chemical medicines and through the long-standing position of medicinal plants in the discussion of public health and hygiene has led to a global approach to the production of herbal medicines.
Galbanum is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the mountainous regions and highlands of Iran, and the history of its use dates back to more than 3000 years ago. It contains a lot of essential and resin compounds, so it is important to pay attention to preserving the genetic reserves of this plant. Galbanum with the scientific name Ferula gummosa Boiss belongs to the Apiaceae family and the Ferula genus.
In different regions of Iran, it is called Barijeh, Balijeh, Balanbo, Balambo, Kama, Owshagh, and in the old books, it is called Anjadan and Barzad, and it is called Qaneh in Arabic, and it is known as Jawashir in India.
Galbanum is a perennial and monocarpic plant and has a height of 80 cm to three meters. The leaves are strongly cut and bearded, the lower leaves or stems are very long, approximately 30 cm long. This plant is one of the most important industrial medicinal plants of Iran and ranks first among Iranian medicinal plants in terms of export.
Traditional herbal medicines obtained from Galbanum have been used to treat intestinal disorders, ulcers, stomach pain and convulsions in Iran. The gum of this plant has anti-microbial, anti-convulsant, anti-flatulent, expectorant, anti-cold, anti-pain, anti-hysterical, laxative, antiseptic and anti-diabetic properties. The essential oil and resin of this plant also has tranquilization, anti-spasmodic properties, and many other uses. The use of native medicinal plants in natural habitats, which, in addition to ecological compatibility, are able to be effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases by synthesizing secondary and active substances under environmental stress, has found a special place in medical science in recent years.
Anti-Microbial And Anti-Bacterial Properties
The high antibacterial activity of Galbanum oil in this plant has been proven on all bacteria except Pseudomonas aerginosa. In addition, the fruit of this plant has the potential to be used as fragrant antibacterial detergents. Paracymene (p-Cymene) which is found in Galbanum essential oil is used as a diluent in paints and for the production of thymol, which has anti-bacterial, microbial and viral effects. In other researches, analysis of volatile oil and antibacterial and antifungal activity of Galbanum essential oil showed that this oil has major components of alpha-pinene and its biological activity is also related to these compounds.
Anti-Convulsant, Anti-Epileptic And Anti-Tremor Properties
The anti-epileptic activity of the oil contained in Galbanum fruit, as well as the anti-epileptic and anti-convulsant properties of its seeds, have been proven in mice. It is used in the treatment of epilepsy and poor blood flow.
Pain Killer Effect Another Interesting Medicinal Properties Of Galbanum
Medicinal use of the Galbanum essential oil has a sedative effect on the nervous system. β-Pinene contained in the essential oil of Galbanum has tranquilizer and soporific effect and is used as an aromatic substance.
Anti-Septic Effect On Kidney And Bladder
The Ferula genus has been noted for having various chemical compounds such as terpenoids, coumarin, fragrant esters, terpene acids, terpene alcohols, and sesquiterpene lactones. The medicinal effect of these chemical compounds on kidney and bladder disinfection has been proven. Galbanum is also used in the treatment of kidney diseases, removal of kidney stones and urinary tracts.
Stimulating And Invigorating Effect
Ferula species from the Apiaceae family are known as a rich source of bioactive natural products. Galbanum is used in traditional medicine as an antispasmodic factor and stimulant. It also has an invigorating effect. This plant is used in Persian traditional medicine as a tonic and antispasmodic.
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